Coastal deaths: RNLI says ‘fight your instincts, not the water’ to help survive
New research* commissioned by the RNLI reveals that over half (54%) of people in the UK would follow a potentially life-threatening instinct if they fell into water. The RNLI is calling on the public to fight their instincts and remember a simple skill – floating – to help save lives from drowning.
Meanwhile, coastal fatality figures2 released today by the RNLI show 162 people lost their lives at the UK coast in 2016, with nearly half (44%) of those being people who didn’t even intend to enter the water.
Sudden immersion in cold water puts these people at severe risk of suffering cold water shock, which triggers the instinctive but life-threatening reaction to gasp uncontrollably and swim hard, which can quickly lead to drowning. Research commissioned by the RNLI shows over half of the UK population would follow this potentially life-threatening instinct if they fell into water3, with 40% of respondents saying their immediate reaction would be to swim, while 2% said they would panic – two of the instinctive responses the RNLI is urging people to fight. Others said they would remove clothing (4%); do nothing (3%); hold their breath (1%), and 4% said they would not know what to do.
As the RNLI’s national drowning prevention campaign Respect the Water enters its fourth year, the charity is calling on the public to fight their instincts and remember one core survival skill – floating, until the effects of cold water shock pass and you can catch your breath, before then trying to swim to safety or call for help.
Overall, just under a quarter (23%) of respondents alluded to a recommended first course of action, with just 6% knowing specifically to float (3%) or tread water (3%). Others said they would stay calm (11%); look for something to hold on to (3%); lie on their back; relax (1%) (1%), or catch their breath (1%).
Mike Tipton, Professor of Human and Applied Physiology at the University of Portsmouth, explains:
‘We often rely on our instincts but our instinctive response to sudden immersion in cold water – gasping, thrashing and swimming hard – is potentially a killer. It increases chances of water entering your lungs, increases the strain on your heart, cools the skin further and lets air escape from any clothing, which then reduces buoyancy.
‘Although it’s counter-intuitive, the best immediate course of action in that situation is to fight your instinct and try to float, just for a short time. The effects of cold water shock will pass quite quickly, within 60–90 seconds. Floating for this short time will let you regain control of your breathing and your survival chances will greatly increase.
‘Floating is not an easy skill in cold open water but most people can float, and the air trapped in their clothes as they fall in should make it easier. As little exercise as necessary can be undertaken to help stay afloat. The recommended floating position is to lean back in the water and keep your airway clear. Keeping calm will help maintain buoyancy. Some people find it helpful to gently scull with their hands and kick their feet to keep afloat. The main principle is to do as little as possible until you have control of your breathing. At this point you have a much better chance of avoiding drowning and surviving until you can swim to safety, call for help, or continuing to float until help arrives.’
Ross Macleod, RNLI Coastal Safety Manager, says:
‘The RNLI’s volunteer lifeboat crews and lifeguards saved nearly 500 people4 from near-fatal incidents in 2016 and rescued thousands more but, sadly, they aren’t able to reach everyone. If people in danger in the water can help themselves initially by floating and regaining control of their breathing, they stand a much greater chance of surviving. Through our Respect the Water campaign, we want to start a national conversation about water safety. We’re asking the public to remember this lifesaving advice, share with others and practice the survival skill of floating – it could be the difference between life and death.
‘For those who are planning to go into the water, the best way to stay safe is to choose a lifeguarded beach and swim between the red and yellow flags, which is the area most closely monitored by the lifeguards. And if you see someone else in danger in the water, fight your instinct to go in and try to rescue them yourself – instead call 999 and ask for the Coastguard.’
The campaign is targeted at adult men, who account for over three-quarters (77%) of the coastal deaths over the past five years, and 74% of last year’s fatalities5, although the advice is relevant to anyone who goes near the water.
The Respect the Water campaign will run throughout the summer on channels including cinema, outdoor, radio, online, and on catch-up TV channels. The RNLI is asking people to visit RNLI.org/RespectTheWater where they will find information on the effects of cold water shock and floating techniques. On social media search #RespectTheWater.
* Basis research conducted on behalf of the RNLI (nationally representative sample across the UK n=1,000).
2 Records from the National Water Safety Forum’s Water Incident Database (WAID) 2012–2016. RNLI has analysed the data using GIS software to plot and analyse incidents before inclusion in a specific coastal dataset (accident and natural causes only).
3 Respondents asked: Imagine a scenario where you have fallen unexpectedly into a body of water such as the sea, river or canal. What are the very first action(s) you would take to get yourself out of this situation safely? (n=1,000)
4 RNLI incident data 2016 – figures exclude call-outs to self-harm incidents.
5 All males except for those known to be under 18. Includes those where age was not recorded.
Notes to Editors
- Filmed interviews with Professor Mike Tipton, including a demonstration of the floating technique, are available here.
Professor Mike Tipton and Ross Macleod are available for interview. Please contact RNLI Public Relations on the numbers below to arrange interviews.
The fatality figures quoted are for water-related fatalities from accidents and natural causes in UK tidal waters. The figures for 2012–2016 are: 163, 167, 163, 168 and 162.
In 2016, swimming, jumping in and general leisure use of the water accounted for 25% (40) of the deaths, walking and running 20% (32); commercial use of the water 16% (26); sailing and boating 10% (17). Unknown activity was 16% (26).
Key facts about the RNLI
The Royal National Lifeboat Institution is the charity that saves lives at sea. Our volunteers provide a 24-hour search and rescue service in the United Kingdom and Ireland from 238 lifeboat stations, including four along the River Thames and inland lifeboat stations at Loch Ness, Lough Derg, Enniskillen, Carrybridge and Lough Ree. Additionally the RNLI has more than 1,000 lifeguards on over 240 beaches around the UK and operates a specialist flood rescue team, which can respond anywhere across the UK and Ireland when inland flooding puts lives at risk.
The RNLI relies on public donations and legacies to maintain its rescue service. As a charity it is separate from, but works alongside, government-controlled and funded coastguard services. Since the RNLI was founded in 1824 our lifeboat crews and lifeguards have saved at least 140,000 lives. Volunteers make up 95% of the charity, including 4,600 volunteer lifeboat crew members and 3,000 volunteer shore crew. Additionally, tens of thousands of other dedicated volunteers raise funds and awareness, give safety advice, and help in our museums, shops and offices.
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